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Tyre basics : What is a tyre?

A tyre is a ring-shaped component that covers the wheel's rim to protect it. It enables better vehicle performance by providing traction between the vehicle and road, acting as a flexible cushion that absorbs shock.

Tyre basics : What are the functions of a tyre?

A tyre helps the vehicle in various ways:

Supports vehicle weight

Transfers traction & braking forces to the road surface

Provides direction & stability to vehicle

Provides comfort by absorbing road shocks

Tyre basics : What are the parts of a tyre?

Shoulder:
Located between the tread and sidewall, it is the thickest part to allow easy diffusion of heat generated within the tyre while driving.
Sidewall:
Bridges tread and bead - largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords to provide tensile strength and flexibility.

Shoulder: Located between the tread and sidewall, it is the thickest part to allow easy diffusion of heat generated within the tyre while driving.

Sidewall: Bridges tread and bead - largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords to provide tensile strength and flexibility.

Tread:
Made of thick rubber or rubber/composite as it touches the road surface.
Bead:
Attaches tyre to the rim & wraps the end of the cord fabric. Comprising bead wire, core, flipper etc, it is generally tight around the rim to prevent the tyre from falling off the rim in the case of a sudden drop in inflation pressure.

Tread: Made of thick rubber or rubber/composite as it touches the road surface.

Bead: Attaches tyre to the rim & wraps the end of the cord fabric. Comprising bead wire, core, flipper etc, it is generally tight around the rim to prevent the tyre from falling off the rim in the case of a sudden drop in inflation pressure.

Tyre basics : What are dimensions of a tyre?

Tyre basics : How to understand tyre nomenclature?

55%. Described as the aspect ratio. This mark represents the hight of the tyre sidewall as the percentage of the normal section width.

195mm. This is the nominal section
width of the tyre

16 Inches. This is the diameter of the tyre’s inner rim in inches.

Load index of tyre.

Speed symbol indicates the maximum speed for the tyre at the full load

Types of tyres : What are the types of tyres?

There are three types of tyres:

1. Metal tyres: Used on locomotives and railcars

2. Solid tyres (rubber or other polymer):
Used in various non-automotive & Industrial applications such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers and wheelbarrows.
3. Pneumatic tyres:
Used on various types of vehicles, including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, trucks, earthmovers and aircraft. These are further classified as:
  o Bias (Tube and Tubeless)
  o Radial (Tube and Tubeless)

What are the tyre patterns?

Bias and radial tyres : What are bias tyres?

What are bias tyres?
- A bias tyre utilises body ply cords that extend diagonally from bead to bead.
-The angle of cords range from 25 to 45º.

Bias and radial tyres : What are radial tyres?

What are radial tyres?
In radial tyres, the cord plies are arranged at 90 degrees to the centre line of thread

Bias and radial tyres : What is the difference between radial and bias tyres?

Crossply
Cords in carcass plies run diagonally at bias angle. Laid criss cross layer upon layer. Continuous single structure gives stiff sidewall and inadequate stiffness for tread.

Radial
Cords in the carcass ply run radially from bead to bead. Mono steel Ply and Multiple steel belts gives supple sidewall & extra stiff tread.

Bias and radial tyres : What are the types of radial tyres?

• Nylon – Nylon Radial tyres – Two Wheeler tyres
• Nylon – Steel Radial Tyre / Steel belted radial tyre – All passenger car
• Steel –steel radial tyre / all steel radial tyre – Truck and Bus tyres

Bias and radial tyres : What are the advantages of radial tyres?

• Longer Life – 50% to 100% higher life as compared to Bias Tyres
• Fuel Saving – 5% to 10 % fuel saving
• Less Down Time – More puncture resistant
• Low Maintenance - Reduced vehicle maintenance
• Riding Comfort – More comfort & less cargo damage
• Excellent Traction & Braking – In both wet & dry conditions

Tube and tubeless tyres : What are tube and tubeless tyres?

• Tube-type tyres consist of a tube which is placed between the tyre and the wheel rim.

• Tubeless tyres are pneumatic tyres that do not require a separate inner tube.

Tube and tubeless tyres : What are the advantages of tubeless tyres?

• More Fuel Efficient
• Better Vehicle control
• Better Safety
• Low Cost

Retreading and upsizing : What is retreading?

Retread also known as recap or a remould is a remanufacturing process for tyres that replace the tread on worn tyres.

Retreading and upsizing : What is tyre upsizing?

Choosing a wider tyre or a larger wheel than stock is known as upsizing.

*Upsizing should be carried out only as per the recommendation of the vehicle manufacturer

Retreading and upsizing : How is tyre upsizing beneficial?

Better Grip and Traction: Wider tyres offer better contact patch on the road making the vehicle more planted.

Better Cornering: Stronger sidewalls minimize body roll to give better stability around a tight corner.

Better braking: Due to the larger contact patch, wider tyres effectively reduce braking distance and skidding.

Better Fuel Efficiency: In some cases, installing bigger wheels may increase fuel efficiency.